For starters, a recession is a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters.
A recession normally occurs when there is a widespread drop in spending (an adverse demand shock), this results in a slump in the market with goods and services not being availed of by people, purchasing power declines.
A decline in demand may be triggered by various events, such as a financial crisis, an external trade shock, an adverse supply shock, the bursting of an economic bubble, or a large-scale anthropogenic or natural disaster.
When a country is experiencing a recession, its production slows down and in turn, prices go up. In fact, during a recession, many firms are forced to sell their products at throw-away prices and suffer from losses as a result.
According to economic analysts, there is always a general economic decline and setback during the recession. Recessions hinder development as Investors hesitate to invest, producers are unable to churn out products, and consumers lack the necessary money for purchasing power.
During a recession, both the consumers and producers need each other to thrive. In case, consumers do not have the purchasing power, then production suffers. Less production means fewer profits for producers who will find it difficult to run their business houses.
Major Impacts Of Recession On The Economy
Fall in GDP and Slump in the market
If a country’s economy is under recession, it means either sum of people are unemployed or there is a natural disaster that has grabbed people power to purchase goods due to limited income.
Production of goods and services will become difficult since producers cannot market them to people who are unemployed and whose purchasing power is down.
Inflation at its peak
Recessions trigger the general rise in the price level in an economy, resulting from a sustained drop in the purchasing power,
Reduction in the purchasing power automatically reduces production therefore the available consumer goods and services are expected to be hiked as far as a company sees fit for profits generation.
The decline in stock prices
When a recession hits, Investment suffers, since the general industrial production is badly affected, investors may decide to pull back or even out of business to avoid investing in companies that might suffer losses.
Indefinite Business closure
Sometimes during the recession, some bigger companies are able to withstand the setbacks but smaller companies have a tough time and some may end up closing down indefinitely.
The variety of these small businesses depend most on the day-to-day sales however during a recession, the prices also keep fluctuating and the sales at times become abnormally low and less profitable.
Increase in unemployment
Recessions force business closure, which closure forces layoffs and pay cuts. People are thrown out of jobs because company sales continue falling due to the reduced purchasing power that generally reduces production and business gets to a standstill.
Recession causes depression if it persists for a long time. Negative trends are visible in the stock market and rapid unemployment is there. Companies need to be bailed out by the government. Public spending suffers a setback.
National debts on the rise
Governments may run to rescue the staggering economy, money gets diverted in bailing out companies and less to inject in other sectors on the economy, therefore less money can be spent by the government on development.
Recessions drain the economy and drain the governments respectively, there is an inability to reduce debt, and deficits and loans are the sole alternatives for governments around the world.